Sensor (dari A hingga Z)

Kali ini kita akan membahas tentang sensor. Kita mulai dari pembahasan : Mengapa kita perlu mengetahui, mengerti, dan mendalami tentang sensor? Jawabannya adalah : IDE atau solusi. Banyak orang Indonesia yang kreatif ingin menciptakan sesuatu khususnya kreasi elektronik, atau juga mahasiswa-mahasiswa yang ingin mengerjakan Skripsi / Tugas Akhir, namun "mentok" dengan idenya, atau bahkan tidak memiliki ide sama sekali. Nah, dengan mengetahui macam-macam sensor dan kegunaannya, memungkinkan kita untuk mendapatkan ide "yang terpendam" tersebut. 

 Sensor adalah perangkat yang dapat mendeteksi perubahan kejadian / besaran fisik, dan mengubahnya menjadi sinyal listrik. Jadi sensor itu ibarat panca-indera yang kita miliki. Mata misalnya, mendeteksi perbedaan, jarak, dan perubahan warna object, yang keluarannya dalam bentuk sinyal yang dikirimkan ke otak. Otaklah yang menginterpretasikan sinyal-sinyal tersebut menjadi sesuatu yang kita lihat saat ini. Indera dalam dunia elektronik itu, dinamakan sensor. Ada ratusan jenis sensor, dan ribuan tipe sensor yang tersedia di pasaran. Seperti ditulis pada situs Wikipedia, berikut saya kutip tabel sensor yang dikategorikan berdasarkan jenisnya :

Sumber : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sensors

Lalu bagaimanakah kriteria sensor yang dikatakan baik itu? Tentu hal pertama adalah : sesuai dengan keperluan. Setelah itu dari sensor-sensor yang masuk kriteria sesuai dengan keperluan, kriteria lain yang harus dipenuhi oleh sensor ideal adalah :

  • Linearitas. Perubahan output harus proporsional, linear (selalu sebanding). Makin besar besaran yang diukur, makin besar pula konversi sinyal listrik yang didapat.
  • Tidak tergantung Suhu. Artinya, karakteristik keluaran sensor tidak boleh tergantung pada suhu di sekelilingnya, kecuali sensor suhu/temperatur.
  • Kepekaan. Yaitu nilai terkecil yang dapat dideteksi oleh sensor. Sensor yang baik adalah yang memiliki kemampuan mendeteksi perubahan nilai paling kecil (resolusi).
  • Cepat Tanggap. Merupakan waktu yang diperlukan keluaran sensor untuk mencapai nilai akhirnya pada nilai masukan yang berubah secara mendadak. Karakteristik ini menuntut, dalam aplikasi sensor harus dapat berubah cepat bila nilai masukan pada sistem tempat sensor tersebut berubah.
  • Batas Frekuensi Terendah dan Tertinggi. Batas-batas tersebut adalah nilai frekuensi masukan periodik terendah dan tertinggi yang masih dapat dikonversi oleh sensor secara benar. Pada kebanyakan aplikasi disyaratkan bahwa frekuensi terendah adalah 0 Hz.
  • Stabilitas Waktu. Untuk nilai masukan tertentu, sensor harus dapat memberikan keluaran yang tetap nilainya dalam waktu yang lama. Sayangnya karakteristik kebanyakan komponen elektronik (sensor) dalam aplikasi nya cenderung berubah seiring dengan waktu.
  • Histeresis. Sensor dapat mengalami gejala histeresis seperti yang ada pada magnetisasi besi. Pada temperatur tertentu akibat dari karakteristik ini sebuah sensor dapat memberikan keluaran yang berlainan, tergantung pada keadaan apakah saat itu temperatur sedang naik atau turun.

Untuk sementara, sampai disini pembahasan tentang sensor. Kapan-kapan kita lanjut lagi dengan pendalaman tentang sensor yang lebih menarik lagi, termasuk contoh dan tutorial pengaplikasian kreasi elektronik nya.

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